The Female Autism Crisis: Assessment and Diagnosis of the Neurodiverse

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Updated February 18th, 2017

This is a sample of the book entitled Behind The Mask and is therefore under copyright law. Behind The Mask give voice to neurodiverse females and discusses the assessment diagnosis and support of females on the Spectrum.

Tania Marshall, M.Sc. is available for diagnostic impressions reports, assessment, diagnosis and intervention, support and problem-solving sessions in-person and/or via Skype. All queries, please email admin@centreforautism.com.au

I chose to write my book series after numerous requests for information on the topic. I also chose to self-publish, so that I can regularly update my work, keep my work current with the speed and amount of the research in the area (a challenge to keep up with for a professionals in the area), keeping my work fresh, current and in real time, rather than a long waiting period and being out-dated.

Over my career, I have I worked with hundreds of neurodiverse, Gifted and Talented, and 2e individuals.They may have labels that consist of Autism, Aspergers, Non-Verbal Learning Disability, Twice-Exceptionality, Semantic-Pragmatic Language Disorder, Oppositional Defiant Disorder, Anxiety Disorder, Bi-Polar Disorder, and many more. Irregardless of the ‘label’, these individuals have many significant strengths, gifts, abilites and/or talents, and this topic is discussed in ‘ AspienPowers’.

In working with neurodiverse individual across the lifespan, I have written and spoken about and or refer the ‘female autism crisis’. There are many factors involved, some of which include:  a lack of professionals trained in the area, gender differences, the female autism bias and the lack of assessment tools.  We are a long way from developing efficient tools for assessing neurodiverse girls and woman. The following slide is from the Recent presentation review of key measures, gender and autism at the 2016 XI Autism-Europe International Congress and shows that the ADOS/ADOS-2, the ADI-R and the SCQ favor males. This is a real problem and a crisis because these are the very tools that many professionals use when they assess females. They are sometimes a cause of females flying under the radar of a professional.

I have been referred many females who have had these tools previously completed on them and have not been given a diagnosis. This can be due to the tools inability to measure the subtle signs, client masking, compensatory mechanisms and strategies and/or the even the rigidness of the professional in using the tool or the over-reliance of using these tools versus asking the right questions and looking for the subtle signs in body language, facial expressions, asking the right social questions, evaluating areas such as context blindness, synaesthesia, Irlen Syndrome, sensory processing issues, and more.

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In assessing girls on the Spectrum, it is important to ask the right questions. I cannot emphasise this enough. There are many questions to ask and what follows are some examples. Keep in mind that high average to profoundly intelligent girls can tell you the socially acceptable answers, but they are unable to actually perform those unwritten social rules or if they can, they are not as fast at it as their peers or it comes off as just slightly awkward.

Many girls and women with Asperger Syndrome or Autism have a tendency to be over-loyal and over-trusting, have a lot of emotional empathy, often just ‘seeing’ that a person needs help or saying they person needs help and taking things literally or not being able to ‘see’ the social context of a situation (for example, bringing home a homeless man because he has no home or food, yet not seeing the inherent dangers in doing this).

  1. What is bullying? What is teasing? What is bitchiness? How do you know the differences? When should you help someone? When shouldn’t you help someone?
  2. Sample questions in the area of friendship friendship should consist of: What is a good friend? What are some healthy ways of making and keeping friends? How long does it take to make and keep a best friend? Who are your friends? How do you know they are your friends? Do your friends try to get you to do things you dont feel is the right thing or that you feel uncomfortable with? (For example, do they try to get you to do your their homework, reports school work? Do they get you to buy things for them? Do they try to get you into trouble (for example, do they say they’ll be your friend if you do something for them?) What do you do at lunchtime? What do you do with your friends? What kinds of activities do you do with your friends? Do you prefer one best friend or a few friends? How long have you known your friend/friends for? Do they come stay over at you house and vice versa (if applicable). What do you talk about with your friend(s)? Professional Tip: Try to find out if the conversations are more one-sided or are they reciprocal, that is the conversation takes turns; it is a two way street rather than just a one person conversation involving 2 or more people.
  3. Sample Questions of play or hanging out may involve: How often do you play it hang our with your best friend/friends? Who initiates the play? Do you ask your friends to come over? Do they ask you to come over? Professional Tip: Often girls will text or cling too much to a girl, often driving them away.
  4. Does the girl or teen understand the social hierarchy? Do they understand how groups in school work? Do they understand the role the group members play? Why do you think the girls at school engage in these behaviors?
  5. Why is it important to keep a promise? Should every promise be kept?
  6. Why is it important to apologize when you’ve hurt someone? Professional Tip: Some girls adamantly refuse to apologize and some girls over-apologize.
  7. How do you know if someone is trying to get you into trouble? How do you know who you can and cannot trust as a friend?
  8. How do you know a particular person is safe to have as a friend? What kinds of clues might alert you that this person is dangerous? How would you know you are being taken advantage of?
  9. What are boundaries? How do you enforce a boundary?
  10. Do you prefer one-on-one friendships or hanging out in a group?
  11. Do you feel anxious around other girls? Girls often internalize their anxiety and can hide it very well. For those girls that are unable to “hold it in”, they may receive a diagnosis earlier than other girls. Remember that is it common for girls to be unable to explain why they are having difficulty in a social situation. They do often discuss not feeling well or may speak of feeling sick, feeling nervous or scared. They may often be in the sick bay.
  12. How long can you socialize for? Do you feel like you need a break? Does socializing make you tired?
  13. Teenagers with Aspergers often have eating disorders, an escalation of anxiety and depression and/or self-harm. Asking these questions is important. Investigating self-harm is also important. Girls are very good at hiding their cutting. Demand Avoidance is commonly seen in girls and women with Aspergers. Avoiding demands is caused by anxiety and/or not knowing how to do the task at hand and /or being embarrassed or socially anxious about a task. This is context-dependent and can look like making up excuses as to why she cannot do something that you know she can do to refusal to do something asked of her to refusing to comply with requests by an adult to avoiding the social playground.
  14. Many girl and women have a flat affect on their face, so that family members or professionals cannot tell how they are feeling.
  15. Some girls and women have Alexythymia and/or Faceblindness. Most experience extreme emotions and some girls may receive a diagnosis earlier than others to their meltdowns and/or violence.
  16. Many, if not all girls and women mis-interpret social situations (for e.g., “none of the teachers or kids at school like me”). Upon further investigation/assessment, it is found out that the individual misinterpreted facial expressions and social context, in an assessment.
  17. An assessment should involve reading of the eyes to see how well an individual can read non-verbal facial expressions from the eyes.
  18. An assessment may include listening to a variety of different tones of voice to see if the individual can distinguish the underlying feeling behind the tone.
  19. An assessment should also investigate other senses (both sensory issues and emotional empathy or “empath” characteristics). These questions need to be asked in a certain way as many females are literal, so a careful exploration is essential. An investigation of synaesthesia may be warranted.
  20. An assessment should also explore social naivety, the differences between lying and ‘white lies’, ‘pink lies’, social diplomacy, social tact and theory of mind.
  21. For teens and women, how do you know when someone is flirting with you or wants to go on a date with you? Do you know how to diplomatically reject the advance of another person? Professional Tip: Assertiveness training is essential for many females.
  22. In relation to gender and sexuality, a smaller group of girls (and boys) feel confused by their gender, and this can range from mild to severe. A thorough exploration of this issue often finds the individual relating better to the opposite gender, with girls getting along better with boys, being androgynous and/or Tomboy-like, and boys seeing other females as very socially successful and appearing to have lots of friends. Sometimes, an individual in their search for why they are different or why the social aspect of their life are so much more work for them, then come to the conclusion, for a variety of reasons (the feeling that others do not like or accept them, they do not like themselves, always having that feeling of being “different” to their peers), that they may have been born in the wrong body (they may be able to have more friends or be liked more, feel more accepted, feel “better” inside their body, be happier within themselves and within their family, be socially better or more popular), if they change their gender or their sexuality. Rarely, does changing one’s gender or sexuality fix the underlying social communication and identity issues, including being bullied, ignored or excluded and/or self-esteem challenges. Depending on how rigid or black and white the person is in their thinking, this can be a challenging issue to work on with the person.
  23. An exploration of identity in teenagers and women is important. This is because, over time, an assimilation of other people’s characteristics traits, voices, accents, behaviors has occurred, in addition to what others and society expect of them and from them. This high price (masking) often leads to a complete loss of identity.
  24. Many professionals are not aware that females can and do make eye contact, do make superficial conversation for short periods of time, and can have friends.
  25. Many professionals are unaware of the variety of sub-type presentations of girls across the Spectrum, with the ‘princess’ or ‘supermodel’ type, and/or those with higher intelligence, being the ones to be least diagnosed or diagnosed at a much later age. They are often Twice-exceptional (2e) individuals and blend in very well.
  26. Strengths and abilities are often overlooked due to the “presenting problem(s)”. Once these are addressed, then can an individual’s true gifts (for example, perfect pitch, artistic creativity, acting, dancing, programming, languages, just to name a few) can be nurtured and evolve into careers.
  27. Individuals on the Spectrum can and do lie, just like anyone else does. They dont do it as well as their peers and the reasons for lying may be different
  28. In terms of friendships, females are able to make friends, however they can often have a challenging time keeping them.
  29. A females sense of justice and high moral compass can be a clue and some females have been known to take their enlarged justice glands too far in their causes.
  30. Females with social problems often use their intelligence (sometimes quite successfully) to compensate for their lack of social skills, often falling into leadership roles, caring roles, teaching roles, acting roles, lawyers, professors, amongst other, where social reciprocity is least expected and social scripts (and slides!) can be adhered too.

Briefly, what we need to be asking are the right questions, looking and searching for and asking about questions that have to do with social confusion, camouflaging (how are the hiding it?), compensatory mechanisms (strategies they use to attempt to fit in, hide their confusion), eating disorders, gender, sexuality (if appropriate) and identity issues.

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This is a sample chapter of ‘Behind The Mask’, and is therefore under copyright law. In Part I of this book, it  explores the narratives and themes of the neurodiverse female clients that Tania has worked with over the course of her 20-year career. Part II includes chapters on assessment, diagnosis, how to explain the diagnosis, what next and support and intervention. For more information on female neurodiversity, go to:

http://www.aspiengirl.com

http://www.taniamarshall.com

Copyright 2014-2017 © All rights reserved. Duplication in whole or part is explicitly forbidden. Thank you.

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Autistic Women, Diagnosis, Disclosure and Mythbusting

Taken from I Am AspienWoman (2015), release date September, 2015

I Am AspienWoman, Foreword by Dr. Shana Nichols, is over 300 pages and covers the entire lifespan from late teens to the elderly woman. Included is a mentor section including 24 inspirational and motivational Autistic woman, headed up by Dr. Temple Grandin.

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A diagnosis does not always mean disclosure.  By this, I mean disclosure may not be helpful. It depends. In my work with women, I have had women who wanted a diagnosis just for themselves and planned to tell no-one (not even their partners family members), I have had people who have told the world, and I’ve had everything in between!  Disclosure can have positive or negative ramifications and it is context dependent. Once you have disclosed you cannot take it back, nor can you control how or what others will say or think. In an ideal world, it would be perfect if the workplace or educational institution or other people would act according to disability law or respond how you would like them to, but this is often not the case. It may or may not benefit you to tell people and the pros and cons need to be considered, even if a workplace says they are aware and accommodating of disability. What are the pros and cons of disclosure for you?

Be prepared that other people may not believe you

It is a common experience for women to be invalidated, disregarded and/or not believed after they disclose their diagnosis to family members, partners or friends. This is mainly due to a lack of education and/or awareness about Autistic females.

Other people may expect to see physical signs or behaviors to confirm to them that a woman is on the Autism Spectrum. They may compare her to the media stereotyped characters or the males they know or know of on the Spectrum. They may say inappropriate or upsetting things to the newly diagnosed, often coming from good intentions.  Other people on the Spectrum may not believe you or may say just as upsetting things. Educating others (by referring them to research or books) and self-advocating, where possible, may be helpful.

Be prepared for the stereotypes about females with Autism

In particular, educating others about how Autism in females presents and the sub-types. Some common stereotypes and myths regarding females include:

females are Tomboys, dislike make-up and clothing, don’t like fairies or the colour pink, females, cannot look at you and carry on a conversation, and more. In fact, the opposite is true. Whilst I have met some females like this, I have met many females who love pink, make-up, clothes, fashion and fairies. There is no one type of Autistic female. What are some scripts or responses you can have prepared ahead of time?

Another way of talking about a diagnosis without talking about the “A” word

Another way of discussing a diagnosis can be in the form of discussing characteristics, traits, abilities or challenges. For example, talking about neurodiversity and ‘different’ brains (just like there are different trees and flowers) can be a helpful analogy. Relating different trees or flowers to people gives others an understanding of different brain types. Learning to advocate for oneself is important and can be effective when done appropriately. The following are a couple of examples to get assist and reflect on:

“I’m the kind of person who likes to socialize for a little while but then I need a break to recharge my batteries”

“I’m the type of person who is really interested in talking about English literature and not so great with small talk”

“I’m an introvert and need more time alone than others so I can concentrate on my painting”

What are some ways you can explain your strengths and challenges? What are some ways you can advocate for yourself?

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Tania is available for in-person or Skype or other remote consultations, assessments or problem-solving sessions. She offers bulk billing and sliding scales where applicable. To book appointments or discuss and/or book availability for presentations, conferences, publishing, translation and media interviews or inquiries, please email Tania@aspiengirl.com

ABOUT THE AUTHOR

Tania Marshall is a best selling author, a 2015 ASPECT Autism Australia National Recognition Award Nominee (Advancement Category) and a 2015 eLIT Gold Medal Award winner for her first self-published book entitled “I Am AspienGirl : The Unique Characteristics, Traits and Strengths of Young Females on the Autism Spectrum”, foreword by Dr. Judith Gould.  The sequel to this book entitled “I Am AspienWoman: The Unique Characteristics, Traits and Strengths of Adult Females on the Autism Spectrum”, Foreword by Dr. Shana Nichols is available September, 2015. Tania is currently writing the third book in her book series entitled “AspienPowers: The Unique Constellation of Strengths, Talents and Gifts of Females with Autism Spectrum Conditions”. The Spanish version of I am Aspiengirl , entitled Soy AspienGirl is now available. Tania’s work has been translated and/or cited in numerous publications including Sarah Hendrickxs’ recent release entitled “Women and Girls with an Autism Spectrum Disorder” (2015), foreword by Dr. Judith Gould.

Tania currently works in busy full-time private practice, providing diagnostic assessments, intervention and support to males and females ages 2-76 years of age. Tania is an Australian Psychological Society (APS) Identified Autism Practitioner, a Helping Children with Autism Early Intervention Service Provider (HWCA), a Better Start for Children with a Disability Provider, an approved Medicare provider of psychological services and a trained Secret Agent Society (SAS) Practitioner.

20152017  All rights reserved Tania Marshall

20 Reasons for obtaining an Adult Autism Diagnosis

20 Reasons for obtaining an Adult Autism diagnosis

One of the most frequent questions I am asked is about the relevance of obtaining a formal diagnosis or formalizing a self-diagnosis. My 2nd book, I Am AspienWoman alludes to this very topic through powerful images, experiences, thoughts and feelings of many adult autistic women. There are many valid reasons for obtaining a diagnosis and the majority of women who receive one explain the benefits in the book. I  have included a couple of pages from the book and you can now pre-order I Am AspienWoman, available in eBook, paperback and hardcover, at http://www.aspiengirl.com You will receive $10 off if you order an I Am AspienGirl© and I am AspienWoman Combo. I hope you enjoy the book as much as I did writing it!

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20 reasons for a diagnosis

20 reasons for a diagnosis1

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Tania is available for in-person or Skype consultations, assessments or problem-solving sessions. To book appointments or discuss and/or book availability for presentations, conferences, publishing, translation and media interviews or inquiries, please email Tania@aspiengirl.com

ABOUT THE AUTHOR

Tania Marshall is a best selling author, a 2015 ASPECT Autism Australia National Recognition Award Nominee (Advancement Category) and a 2015 eLIT Gold Medal Award winner for her first self-published book entitled “I Am AspienGirl© : The Unique Characteristics, Traits and Strengths of Young Females on the Autism Spectrum”, foreword by Dr. Judith Gould.  The sequel to this book entitled “I Am AspienWoman: The Unique Characteristics, Traits and Strengths of Adult Females on the Autism Spectrum”, Foreword by Dr. Shana Nichols is available September, 2015. Tania is currently writing the third book in her book series entitled “AspienPowers: The Unique Constellation of Strengths, Talents and Gifts of Females with Autism Spectrum Conditions”. The Spanish version of I am Aspiengirl© , entitled Soy AspienGirl is now available. Tania’s work has been translated and/or cited in numerous publications including Sarah Hendrickxs’ recent release entitled “Women and Girls with an Autism Spectrum Disorder” (2015), foreword by Dr. Judith Gould.

Tania currently works in busy full-time private practice, providing diagnostic assessments, intervention and support to males and females ages 2-76 years of age. Tania is an Australian Psychological Society (APS) Identified Autism Practitioner, a Helping Children with Autism Early Intervention Service Provider (HWCA), a Better Start for Children with a Disability Provider, an approved Medicare provider of psychological services and a trained Secret Agent Society (SAS) Practitioner.

© 2015-2017 All rights reserved Tania Marshall

I Am AspienWoman Book Testimonials, Coming September 2015 and available for pre-order at www.aspiengirl.com

I Am AspienWoman: The Unique Characteristics, Traits and Gifts of Adult Women on the Autism Spectrum (Foreword by Dr. Shana Nichols) is the sequel to the best selling and IPPY eLIT Gold Medal Award winning I Am AspienGirl (2014), Foreword by Dr. Judith Gould. To pre-order, go to http://www.aspiengirl.com/english

The book is available in eBook, paperback and a gorgeous hardcover version and can be bought separately or along with I Am AspienGirl.

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Have you ever wondered about a friend, a partner, a mother, sister or daughter? Wondered why she has said she feels ‘different’? Wondered why some things are so easy for her yet other things that most people perform with ease seem so challenging? Out of step with her peers, she may struggle keeping friends and a job, yet she has multiple degrees. She may be a gifted singer, yet she struggles with social interaction and performance anxiety. Maybe she was told she was shy and just needed to come out of her shell. Told she’d grow out of her social awkwardness. Maybe she had or has an eating disorder. Maybe she has been given too many ‘labels’? She may have spent years going to counselors, therapists, doctors or psychiatrists, with no real improvement or answers. Maybe Autism or Asperger Syndrome was mentioned but she did not resonate with the male profile or even with the stereotypical female profile.

Bright from early on, she may have single-minded focus, sprinkles of anxiety, sensory and social issues, be gifted in art, writing, research or singing. Maybe she is ‘Aspien’, an adult female with Asperger Syndrome or Autism. She has a unique constellation of super-abilities, strengths and challenges. She may feel or say that she is from another planet. Maybe nothing so far has really fit in your search for understanding her. Maybe she herself has been searching for self-understanding, or maybe she has recently self-diagnosed and is struggling to obtain a formal diagnosis. She may have a child or children on the Autism spectrum or it runs in her family and she is now recognizing it in herself.

If you are looking for a book on the often perplexing and unique adult female autism spectrum traits, then this is the book for you. This book showcases the female profile in a unique format, presenting a combination of images and quotes to illuminate the newly emerging Autistic female phenotype. This highly visual format showcases what Autism is like for females, as spoken by females on the Spectrum and those that love or support them. This book is about awareness and education of the female phenotype.

Drawing from years of practitioner experience, Tania Marshall takes you inside the world of adult females with Autism or Asperger Syndrome. Current research supports an inherent gender bias with females being under researched. This book was specifically designed to be a ‘layman’s’ guide for the general population, professionals, family members, the education and psychiatric fields.

Foreword by Shana Nichols, PhD

“Having written an endorsement for I Am AspienGirl ®, and recommending it as a must read to anyone parenting or working with a girl on the autism spectrum (including the girls themselves), I was delighted to be asked by Tania Marshall to write the foreword for I Am AspienWoman®.

I began working regularly with AspienGirls in 2005, having developed ‘girls only’ social coping groups. At that time, there were no resources available for families that specifically addressed the issues faced by females, and limited research had been conducted with the goal of understanding the experiences of girls and women. Few clinicians had begun to specialize in this area, yet those of us who did knew that these girls and women have unique needs and that a subset of females present with behaviors and characteristics that can be quite dissimilar from their male counterparts. When viewed through a ‘male’ lens, AspienGirls and Women are often overlooked, missed, misdiagnosed, and misunderstood, resulting in a rallying call for the professional community to pay attention and work towards remedying the situation.

In recent years that call has begun to be answered. Over 15 studies addressing gender differences and the experiences of females have been published in professional journals in 2015 alone. Attendees at the annual International Meeting for Autism Research in 2015 were able to participate in a session devoted entirely to research concerning females on the autism spectrum. A number of clinical conferences with the goal of offering practical strategies and facilitating the understanding of females have popped up globally in the last two years, providing the opportunity to learn from professionals and from women on the spectrum themselves. Lastly, the number of books and resources that are available to families, professionals, and females has grown. I Am AspienGirl was a rich and unique contribution to this literature, and I am thrilled to say that I Am AspienWoman ® is equally creative and inspiring.

With its characteristic eye-catching photos and powerful quotes from members across the entire female autism spectrum community, readers of I Am AspienWoman will find no shortage of knowledge, illumination and encouragement – after all, an important message of the book is for women to be their own superheroes. I Am AspienWoman celebrates the strengths, triumphs, talents and beauty of females, yet does not shy away from a balanced discussion of challenges, concerns, and important yet often overlooked issues such as gender and sexuality, personal safety, mental health, and motherhood. Essential themes that run throughout include Identity, Connection, Validation, Self-Care, Inspiration, Strategies, and Optimism. Top tips from over 20 Real-life AspienWoman Super-hero Mentors offer a smorgasbord of suggestions and support.

The pages of I Am AspienWoman hold a diamond of a message for any reader. It may be big, life changing, and fabulously eye opening. It may touch your heart and whisper “I see you.” It may provide the much-needed words to explain, describe or share thoughts, feelings and experiences. It may open doors, or it may give a gentle push to close those that are no longer helpful. It may be a hint of Hope, or perhaps a spark of Superhero-ness. It may be all that is needed to get started, re-start or continue on the journey of becoming the best version of who you are: an AspienGirl or Woman, a family member, a friend, an educator, a professional.

As a field, we still have a long way to go in advocating for better understanding of female autism, educating and training professionals, developing appropriate assessments and treatments, and creating a community of support and inclusion for AspienGirls and Women. Given all that has happened in the last few years, I am encouraged that we are headed in the right direction. Thankfully there are those special books, like I Am AspienWoman, that act as a guide and an incredibly accessible resource. As with her prior book, Tania’s latest offering has not surprisingly leaped onto my recommended reading list.”

Shana Nichols, PhD
Owner, Director, Researcher                                                                                        ASPIRE Center for Learning and Development                                                             Author of ‘Girls Growing Up on the Autism Spectrum: What Parents and Professionals Should Know About the Pre-teen and Teenage Years’

“Tania Marshall has created a groundbreaking book. Most often we hear the voice of the parent or professional, at last we hear the voice of women with Aspergers. Aspienwomen can be totally inspiring! Thoroughly recommend.”

Carrie Grant
Vocal coach, judge and TV presenter
Judge, BBC 1’s Fame Academy and BAFTA Award winning “Glee Club.”
Presenter, The One Show
Author, bestselling book “You Can Sing”
Mother to two daughters on the spectrum
United Kingdom

“There is definitely a need for more information for individuals who get diagnosed later in life. Diagnosis as an adult can provide tremendous insight into why relationships were so difficult. When I was in college, I remember many older quirky adults who seeked me out and helped me. Today many of these people would be diagnosed with either autism or Asperger’s syndrome. One woman was the associate dean’s wife and she gave me many hours of emotional support during difficult social times in college.”

Temple Grandin, Author, USA
The Autistic Brain and Thinking in Pictures

In this sequel, to her first book Aspiengirl, Tania Marshall examines the topic of autism in women, utilising the personal perspectives of women themselves. Despite a greater awareness of autism more generally, autism in girls and women is only just beginning to receive wider attention and the majority remain undetected, in many instances leading unhappy unfulfilled lives and often struggling to survive. This ‘lost generation’ of women is only now beginning to have the nature of the condition and needs recognised. Despite the talents and qualities such women may possess, they largely remain disadvantaged and vulnerable. This is often compounded by a lack of self-awareness and by their families and a poorly informed professional community.

As with its forerunner the essence of this book is its attractiveness, readability and clarity. It will open eyes of the reader in so many ways and although adopting a positive tone throughout avoids trivialising or glamourizing the topic or pulling its punches. Tania Marshall does not shy away from difficult areas or topics and has sensible approaches to offer. I am sure it will have a wide appeal – from those women who are or suspect they may be on the autism spectrum, families and professionals in many fields such as employment, education, health and social support.

Richard Mills

Research Director, Research Autism, London

Hon. Research Fellow, Dept. Psychology, the University of Bath, UK

I have been fortunate enough to work with a number of young people and their families in the UK and Ireland during the last 20 years.  I am also lucky to be involved with practitioner research; previously developing our ‘saturation model’ for including young people with autism in mainstream education (Morewood et al, 2011) and most recently considering the impact of interventions through case studies (Bond et al, 2015).  This research is vital; however I always feel I understand most from listening to young people, hearing their stories and talking to their families.

AspienWoman is the latest book from Tania A Marshall, and a vital addition to the growing knowledge-base about females and autism.  The ‘first-hand’ accounts throughout the book support the outcomes of our research; a personalised approach is essential.  The comprehensive ‘real-life’ examples support a rapid increase in understanding and allow for a truly unique viewpoint; highlighting strengths and personal characteristics of the women who have contributed, skillfully linked and collated by Tania, drawing on a wealth of personal experience and expertise.

I am reminded of a quote one of our students, Megan told me once: ‘I feel rather positive about my Autism, because it is part of me and without it I would not be me anymore.’  Anyone reading AspienWomen will understand immeasurable more after reading it, as I have.  I am always learning, from our young people and their families; Tania’s contribution to this knowledge will have considerable impact, as I am certain that AspienWoman will for many, many others around the world.  Essential reading, if you are directly involved in working with young people, their families or women with autism, or if you just want to understand more about some of the amazingly talented individuals who have contributed to this amazing work.

Gareth D Morewood

UK Special Educational Needs Coordinator

Honorary Research Fellow, University of Manchester

Associate Editor, Good Autism Practice Journal

www.gdmorewood.com
“Once again, Tania has provided a visual conversation starter to demonstrate the wide and varied adult presentation of female autism. Featuring individual profiles of successful autistic women along with quotes from individuals and family members, this book will help to further increase the understanding that women with autism are out there – even if they are hard to spot”.

Sarah Hendrickx,
Autistic adult
Masters (Autism), Postgraduate Certificate (Asperger Syndrome)
Author of Women and Girls with ASD, Understanding Life Experiences from Early Childhood to Old Age. JKP, (2015)

“When reading Tania Marshall’s AspienWoman, the reader gets wave after wave of deep understanding about women with Asperger Syndrome, filled with affirmation, positive reinforcement and difficult facts softened with empathy.  This book is unique and sensitive and full of wisdom.  For those on the spectrum it will be like a breath of fresh air to be understood and lifted up. For those just wanting to learn more, it is an exciting journey full of revelation and hope. AspienWoman is not a book to read once.  It is a book to be absorbed over time.”

Kathy Hoopmann,

Author, All Cats have Asperger Syndrome, All Dogs have ADHD

The Essential Manual for Asperger Syndrome (ASD) in the Classroom

Tania, your book is a reflection of the bright and beautiful possibilities that await women on the autism spectrum. Many had said, “She will grow out of it,” but rather, your book shows that “We grow into it,” emerging from confusion and misunderstanding into a new appreciation of our unique and powerful profile. I am Aspien Woman is a celebration in word and picture, affirming our rightful place in the society in which we live!

Rachael Lee Harris

Psychotherapist specializing in Women and Girls on the Autism Spectrum.

Author of My Autistic Awakening: Unlocking the Potential for a Life Well Lived

As the parent of an adult son who was diagnosed with Aspergers after many years of misdiagnosis and assumptions, ie “little professor” “lazy’ and more + the spouse of a man who was diagnosed with Aspergers as well I enjoyed reading your book.

The layout of I Am AspienWoman is quite impressive. The photos are vivid. The self descriptive disclosures regarding living with Aspergers by individuals and family members provide a venue for other woman on the spectrum to identify with. The photos and self disclosures are uniquely reinforced with factual information regarding the bio/psycho/social characteristics of those on the spectrum by the author in a format that the laymen can understand. I Am AspienWoman takes Aspergers and living on the spectrum out of the clinical context and provides a human and real window into the meaning of living with Aspergers.

I Am AspienWoman focuses on the positive aspects of living with Aspergers. It does not focus on the deficits. For sure, this book portrays the challenges associated with being on the spectrum but the strengths that individuals possess due to having Aspergers is reinforced. This will be resultant in providing hope and  the reader perceiving themselves, or a family member who has Aspergers in a more positive light.

The unique combination of presenting bios of “real people”, challenges, and the strengths of individuals with Aspergers will provide a venue for not only appreciation of strengths but challenges that effect individuals on the spectrum as well. I Am AspienWoman cracks the heuristics of society at large and any misnomers regarding Aspergers.

Many different aspects regarding traits, characteristics, challenges  are portrayed which reinforce the individuality of individuals on the spectrum. As with neurotypicals, each individual possesses different traits, talents and personalities. Hence, this is not a cookie cutter diagnosis where everyone with Aspergers is talented in math or computers. 

Thanks Tania for writing a much needed and “human” book that many on the spectrum will seek out for positive role models and will cause  society at large to change their perception about individuals on the spectrum who they live, love, work and play with on a daily basis.

Mari Nosal M.Ed. Author

Ten Commandments Of Interacting With Kids On The Autism Spectrum And Related Commandments

When I first read I am AspienGirl last year, I knew immediately that we would be treated to sequels. I am AspienWoman takes up where AspienGirl leaves off, taking the concept through a beautiful age progression.  AspienWoman does not glamorize Asperger’s but rather gives a balanced, factual picture of the strengths and challenges that characterize this population. The short vignettes tell the stories of the lives of real people, told from both the perspective of AspienWomen themselves, and from those who surround them in life. Tania Marshall outlines common traits and needs of the AspienWoman, with which many women will identify.

This book is alive with pictures and stories of beautiful, successful AspienWomen. The focus is on the strength of those spotlighted, and includes personal tips for success from these role models to the reader. Reading the stories of this group of featured role models, it is clear that “different” does not mean “less”. Ms. Marshall also includes a section of ideas on how a professional might use I am AspienWoman to enhance the lives of women with Asperger’s.

I am AspienWoman throws a life line to young ladies dealing with a feeling of isolation or frustration due to Asperger’s Syndrome. Ms. Marshall offers a sense of community to this population, along with proof that success and happiness can be a reality for the AspienWoman.

 Linda Barboa, PhD

Author of:

Stars in Her Eyes: Navigating the Eyes of Childhood Autism

Tic Toc Autism Clock

Steps to Forming A Disability Ministry

And the Albert is My Friend series teaching children about autism.

Watch for AspienPowers: The Unique constellation of Gifts, Strengths and Abilities of Females on the Autism Spectrum, coming late 2015.

Aspienpowerscover

Book 3 of the series

Tania Marshall is a best selling author, a 2015 ASPECT Autism Australia National Recognition Award Nominee (Advancement Category) and a 2015 eLIT Gold Medal Award winner for her first self-published book entitled “I Am AspienGirl: The Unique Characteristics, Traits and Strengths of Young Females on the Autism Spectrum”, foreword by Dr. Judith Gould. She divides her time between private practice, research and writing. Tania is an Australian Psychological Society (APS) Identified Autism Practitioner, a Helping Children with Autism Early Intervention Service Provider (HWCA), a Better Start for Children with a Disability Provider, an approved Medicare provider of psychological services and a trained Secret Agent Society (SAS) Practitioner.

Tania is available for Skype or in person assessments, support, intervention, coaching and problem solving sessions. Tania can also be contacted for interviews, workshops, presentations, conferences, articles, publishing inquiries and/or translations at tania@aspiengirl.com

Adult Autism/Asperger Syndrome Assessment in Females

Adult Autism Assessment in Females 
Updated 23/09/2016

Autism spectrum conditions, including Asperger’s syndrome, are challenging to identify in adults. Without appropriate assessment, many individuals may go undiagnosed, without appropriate support and treatment.

Many girls and women are going undiagnosed or misdiagnosed because the majority of the research has been conducted on males and there is a great need of research based on females compared to NT females, research based assessment tools for females and interventions for females. There is also a great need for these tools to be made readily accessible to professionals, in other countries and other languages. At present, there are few professionals in the world both trained and experienced in assessing and/or working with females on the Spectrum, across the lifespan. At this point in my career, I have worked with hundreds, closer to 1,000 females, from ages 18 months to 78 years of age, of various sub-types, symptomatology, mild to severe traits, a variety of levels of Giftedness, many professional performers (singers, musicians, comedians, actors, models), professionals athletes, professional artists, professional authors, high-profile individuals, all at different points on the Social Spectrum, some with gender dysphoria, some with sexual fluidity, parenting and being a mother, being in trouble with the law, stalking and obsessiveness, working in the sex trade, being sectioned into a mental health facility (and the experiences that go with that), have work-related challenges, and much more.

Females with Autism or Aspergers may be picked up for Autism in the teenage years with depression, anxiety or an eating disorder, if they are at all. Many females exist who are undiagnosed or misdiagnosed and continuing to have mental health problems because of this. Some are diagnosed with Borderline Personality Disorder, which may or may not be appropriate, although many have BPD traits, and I have worked with individuals who have both. For adults, no-one knew of Asperger Syndrome or Autism back in their childhood. So a comprehensive early childhood and teenage autobiographical account is an extremely important piece of an assessment. In addition, other perspectives from people who know the person very well are important. A comprehensive assessment of an adult can include a variety of assessment tools, depending on the person. It also involves childhood photographs, report cards and comments, parental and/or partner perspectives, formal assessment tool(s) and an exploration of abilities, talents and/or gifts.

 

The vast majority of women I work with are on the bright end of the Spectrum, and tell me their reasons for seeking a diagnosis range from self-understanding and awareness to improving their relationships, to improving their works relationships, to treating their anxiety and or depressive episodes. are not seeking services, support, nor government support pension or services. They are wanting to know why they have “felt different” for so long, wanting to know what career is best for them, wanting to know how to structure their lives. They don’t want o be on government disability not do they see they value in that. They like working, want to work and contribute.

Presently there are ZERO adult assessment tools for females, very little research that is based on females and no specific research based interventions for females. This is a crisis for females. It is challenging for females to find a professional or organization familiar with the female autism research, how to assess females and then how to support them.

When I conduct impressions assessments, the assessment of adults explore the areas of social communication and interaction, repetitive and stereotypical behaviour, sensory issues and abilities or gifts. Feedback is provided, recommendations, highly recommended resources and a “What Next?” discussion is also involved.

Generally speaking, my comprehensive adult diagnostic impressions assessments include the following:

An autobiographical account from earliest memories until approximately age 25 (usually 4-6 pages)
A written or typed account of why you feel you might have female Autism/Asperger Syndrome
A 10-page Life History Questionnaire to go over various traits, and also collect extensive life/educational/employment/psychological history, developmental information.
Where possible, I interview family members, a partner, or any other family member or friend who know the person very well. I also base my diagnosis on my direct experience of how the person presents during the interviews. Non-verbal body language, facial expressions, the sound of the voice and intonations are all assessed.
An interview exploring present day context and day to day functioning
An exploration of the following is important:
 
Family history, including one’s own children (if any), who may be displaying traits or be formally diagnosed.
History of mental health issues, previous medical, psychiatric, psychological and psycho-educational history (previous IQ test and/or educational assessments), previous diagnoses and/or learning disabilities
Reading of previous reports, letters, hospital admission notes, medical, educational reports
Educational history
Social communication and relationship/friendship history, use of social compensatory strategies
Identity or persona (s)
A thorough exploration of compensatory strategies
A sensory processing assessment
Work history
School report cards, school/teacher comments
Childhood photos from each developmental stage
Abilities, gifts, strengths, talents and/or skills (some examples include samples of poetry, art, blog, short stories, books, singing and/or musical ability, acting, comedy routine, degrees and/or thesis/dissertation work, samples of jewellery, clothing or costumes, website, awards and so on)
Over-excitabilities, sensory sensitivities, self-soothing or stimming behaviors, sensory processing disorder and/or synaethesia
An exploration of visual, auditory, taste, touch, smell, balance, movement and intuitive differences, synaethesia and hyper empathy.
1-3 other perspectives from other persons who know the person really well
An exploration of personal journal entries, autobiographical and/or blog entries
Results of specific adult Autism assessment tools and other tools, completed by the person and also dependent on the person being assessed and the context
Other conditions (for example,  Central Auditory Processing, Irlen Syndrome, Ehlers Danlos Syndrome,  Hypermobility type Syndrome, food allergies)
Formal diagnostic tool(s) depend on the context of client. Research has shown that both the DSM5 and the ADOS are not very good at picking up the subtle characteristics of females on the Spectrum.
It is imperative that professionals learn to ASK females the right questions. These questions will vary from questions that would be asked of males. This is because we research is finally beginning to catch up with clinical experience, telling is what we as clinicians have know for years, that males and females present differently, in quite a few ways. Giftedness also impacts on the presentation of a female on the Spectrum, so professionals need to be aware of all levels of Giftedness and how they affect the assessment process.
So, when someone receives a diagnosis, what then?

A positive assessment or diagnosis is just the beginning.It is never to late to receive a diagnosis and the benefits outweigh any disadvantages.

While my diagnosis is based on the current DSM-5 Criteria, it is by no means a cut and dry process. The DSM is a working document and as such, does not accomodate well to females on the Spectrum.

Diagnosis, ultimately from my perspective, is best done when in collaboration with the client (and their partner or spouse when relevant) as a way to inform, educate, reflect and empower.

An important  “What Next” section is very important, and may or may not involve the following,  again dependent on the person, their situation and context of their life. Discussions of the following may include:
Self awareness and understanding
Education and highly recommended resources (including the best academic books, websites, research, researchers, webinars, etc)
Attitude
Strengths
Challenges
Recommended helpful therapy
The Social Spectrum
Referral to other professionals, professional support groups, etc.
Many adults have lived and died not knowing they had Autism or Asperger syndrome. Some benefits of an adult diagnosis include:
Knowledge and self-understanding of oneself and also for family members, friends, co-workers and/or partners
Access to appropriate therapy, medication, support and services
An answer for past experiences and challenges
Permission to ease up on oneself
Possible prevention of other conditions or disorders (i.e., personality disorders, difficulties distinguishing between reality and fantasy), difficulties with work, the law and court system and/or suicide
Prevention of mis-directed treatment
Learning about how one thinks (see the Autistic Brain, by Dr. Temple Grandin)
Identifying strengths, abilities and gifts
There are both benefits and costs to disclosing a diagnosis. Disclosure should be considered thoughtfully and used only if there is is potential benefit.
Who should I look for to help me? How can I find someone to help me?
Today, there are few professionals in the world trained and experienced in assisting females. At this time, the most important factor to look at is “Does the professional have both experience and training in the area of female autism”? Are they aware of the inherent gender bias? What types of assessment tools do they use? What is involved in an assessment? Do they use adult assessment tools? (Yes, I have had two clients tell me that child assessment tools were used on them).
I have developed a database of professionals who work with females which can be found at and is being updated on a regular basis at http://taniamarshall.com/female-asc-professionals.html
Please contact me at tania@aspiengirl.com if you or you know of someone who would like to be added to this database.
Common Pathways to an assessment or diagnosis
Having a child being assessed or who is formally diagnosed with  Autism
Difficulties with work or a current relationship
Discovering and learning about female Autism, aka self-diagnosis
A family member has recently or in the past received a diagnosis
Stalking and/or becoming involved in other criminal activities
I have read your writings and book I Am AspienGirl and it fit like a glove. Can you provide an assessment for me?
Yes, Tania regularly provides comprehensive impressions assessments across the lifespan. The vast majority of adults (both male and female) Tania has assisted are wanting a self-diagnosis confirmed formally. She is also in touch with other professionals who work in this area and also regularly refers to other appropriate professionals at the appropriate time. She can be reached at tania@aspiengirl.com
I really identify with the writings available on female Autism but I am not sure I want a diagnosis? Is Tania available to for sessions other than assessment?
Yes, Tania regularly provides services which may focus on assessment, diagnosis, problem solving, the pros and cons of a diagnosis, the pros and cons of disclosure, career directions, managing stress, anxiety, sensory sensitivities, “What Next” after a diagnosis, the different types of Autistic thinking, gender dysphoria, social difficulties and social skills, relationship difficulties, synaethesia, hyperempathy and the topic of being an “empath”.
For more information about the adult female phenotype, the sequel to the eLIT Gold Medal Award winning I am AspienGirl, entitled I Am AspienWoman: The Characteristics, Traits and Abilities of Adult Females on the Autism Spectrum is in press and due for release September 2015 and is based on her blog entitled “Aspienwomen: Adult Women with Asperger Syndrome. Moving towards a female profile of Asperger Syndrome”

Tania A. Marshall is an award winning and best selling author, a 2016 and 2015  ASPECT Autism Australia National Recognition Awards Nominee (Advancement category) and a psychologist. Her first book, I Am AspienGirl: The Unique Characteristics, Traits and Gifts of Females on the Autism Spectrum, Foreword by Judith Gould, UK, is a Amazon best-seller and a 2015 IPPY eLIT Gold Medal Book Award Winner.

I Am AspienGirl has been translated into both Spanish and Italian (release dates of July and August 2015 respectively). Additional completed translations include: German, Japanese and Brazilian Portuguese. Other languages currently under completion include: Dutch, French, Norwegian (by SPISS), Hebrew and Chinese.

 

Tania has completed the sequel to I Am AspienGirl, entitled “I am AspienWoman: The Unique Characteristics, Traits and Strengths of Females on the Autism Spectrum, foreword by Dr Shana Nichols (lead author of Girls Growing up on the Autism Spectrum). The release was 2015. This book includes a section of 24 females, all diagnosed as on the Spectrum, showcasing their strengths and also offering important advice to others. Tania is proud to announce that her 2nd book “I Am AspienWoman” recently won an IPPY eLIT Gold Medal in the “Women’s Issues” category.

Tania is an Australian psychological society (APS) autism identified medicare provider,
helping children with autism (HCWA) early intervention service provider, a better start early intervention provider and an Australian government medicare approved mental health provider. She is also a trained Secret Agent Society (SAS) social skills practitioner.

Tania can be reached at Admin@centreforautism.com.au for clinic or Skype remote impressions assessments, consultations, problem solving sessions, skills acquisition and intervention, interviews, book translations, presentations or workshops. She divides her time between busy full-time private practice, research and writing her book series.
Tania’s other books include:
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all 3
all 31
AspienWoman April Elit Award1
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Aspienpowerscover
behindmaskfrontcover

Flying under the radar: Girls and Women with Aspergers Syndrome

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Flying under the radar: Girls and Women with Aspergers Syndrome

In Australia, approximately 1 in 100 children are born with an Autism Spectrum Condition (ASC). ASC is a recently defined lifelong developmental condition and affects people regardless, of age, colour, race or socio-economic status. It is now referred to as a spectrum condition, meaning that the condition affects the person in different ways, even though there are common areas of challenges across all people with Autism.
Aspergers Syndrome (AS) or High Functioning Autism (HFA) is a form of Autism, characterised by challenges in social communication and interaction and restricted, repetitive patterns of behaviour, interests, or activities, including sensory issues (DSM5, 2013).

Hans Aspergers, an Austrian paediatrician, originally described Aspergers Syndrome in 1944. He originally believed that girls were not affected. However, further clinical evidence led him to revise his statement. In terms of statistics, Kanner (1943) studied a small group of children with autism and found that there were four times as many boys as girls. Ehlers and Gillburg (1993) found the similar ratio of four boys to every girl, in their study of children in mainstream schools in Sweden.

Aspergers Syndrome appears to be more common among boys than girls, when the research is reviewed. However, recent awareness of genetic differences between males and females, and the diagnostic criteria largely based on the characteristics of males, are currently thought to be responsible for females being less likely to be identified. Attwood (2000), Ehlers and Gillberg (1993) and Wing (1981) all acknowledge that many girls and women with Aspergers Syndrome are never referred for assessment and diagnosis for AS, or are misdiagnosed, and are therefore missed from statistics and research. Many girls and women do not meet diagnostic criteria, as the criteria are based on the behavioural phenotype of boys. There exists a critical need for diagnostic criteria to reflect the female phenotype.

Questions have been raised about the ratio of males to females diagnosed as having an autism spectrum condition (ASC), with a variety of studies and anecdotal evidence citing a range from 2:1 to 16:1. Here in Australia, I have seen a rapid increase in the number of girls and adult women referred for a diagnosis and/or support.
The following are some of the identified different ways in which girls and women tend to present from boys (Gould and Ashton Smith, 2011; Attwood, 2007; and Yaull-Smith, Dale (2008):

• Girls use social imitation and mimicking by observing other children and copying them, leading to masking the symptoms of Asperger syndrome (Attwood, 2007). Girls learn to be actresses in social situations. This camouflaging of social confusion can delay a diagnosis by up to 30 years.
• Dale Yaull-Smith (2008) discusses the ‘social exhaustion’ that many females experience, from the enormous energy it takes pretending to fit in.

• Girls, in general, appear to have a more even and subtler profile of social skills. They often adopt a social role based on intellect instead of social intuition.

• Girls often feel a need and are aware of the cultural expectations of interacting socially. They tend to be often more involved in social play, and can be observed being led by their peers rather than initiating social contact. They often only have one or two close friends and/or may find boys easier to get along with.

• Cultural expectations for girls involve participating in social communication, often made up of social chit-chat or surface-type conversation. Girls with Asperger Syndrome find this type of communication exhausting, tending to desire having conversations that have a function to them. Girls on the spectrum are also are socially confused by teasing, bullying, and bitchiness, and the teasing that often occurs at school.

• Girls often misunderstand social hierarchies and how to communicate with others based on the level of the hierarchy that the person is on. This can tend to get girls in trouble with adults.

• Girls have better imagination and more pretend play (Knickmeyer et al, 2008), with many involved in fiction, and the worlds of fairies, witches and other forms of fantasy, including imaginary friends
.
• Whilst the interests of girls on the spectrum are very often similar to those of other girls, it is the ‘intensity’ and ‘quality’ of the interest which can be unusual. For example, many are very focused on their animals, celebrities or soap operas.

• Girls and women on the spectrum are generally skilled in one on one social relationships, but are uncomfortable and anxious in large groups of people.

• Girls may have great difficulty in attempting to explain their difficulties in social situations and/or groups. Instead, they may skip school, complain of headaches or stomach aches or refuse to go to school.

• Girls facial expressions tend to not match their moods. They may say that are fine, but on the inside they are unhappy, anxious or both.

• Girls tend to be more passive-aggressive (avoid social activities, refuse requests from others or refuse to complete tasks,), tend to blame themselves and/or internalise their feelings and anger and have less ADHD.

Girls on the autism spectrum are more likely to come to the attention of health professionals due to difficulties with anxiety, depression, eating disorders, behavioural problems and/or social skills challenges. The presenting problem then becomes the ‘diagnosis’, with the larger picture and explanation for feeling “different” is missed.

Women with Autism are most likely to have had a long history of misdiagnoses, often with borderline personality disorder, schizophrenia, anxiety disorder, depression, selective mutism, OCD, but somehow those labels just didn’t seem to fit adequately. Up to 42% have been misdiagnosed (Gould, 2011).

Many women with an autism spectrum condition are not being diagnosed and are therefore not receiving the help and support needed throughout their lives. Having a diagnosis is the starting point in providing appropriate support for girls and women in the spectrum. A timely diagnosis can avoid many of the difficulties women and girls with an autism spectrum disorder experience throughout their lives. Who should I take my child or myself to see? Ask your doctor, psychologist or paediatrician how many girls with Autism they have seen. They must have seen as least 50 girls with AS, due to the ‘social echolalia’ or the camouflaging of social confusion that females on the Spectrum engage in.

Three Common Female Autism Myths and Advice

1. Girls and women cannot socialise. Actually, many girls and can socialise quite well, just not for as long. They tend to suffer from social exhaustion or a ‘social hangover’ from longer periods of socialising. All persons on the spectrum need solitude to recharge their batteries.
Advice: Let your family or friends know that you need a solitude break, to allow you to recharge your batteries. Let them know that this is how your regain your energy.

2. Girls and women lack empathy. Actually, there are different types of empathy. Girls and women have high emotional empathy, being highly sensitive to the emotions of others, also known as referred emotion, the actual feeling of others feelings. This can be quite overwhelming for the person experiencing it. Being overwhelmed by feeling others emotions makes it challenging for them to process or ‘read ‘the subtle social signals (tone of voice, subtle expression on face)
Advice: Learn to accept and trust your intuition. Learning a variety of interventions to help manage or cope with high empathy is important.

3. Girls and women with autism cannot lie. Girls and women with autism can lie, but they usually do it badly. They tend to lie to the detriment of all concerned or lie as a quick fix because they do not know what to do, so they will deny, even when it’s plainly obvious that they are. In addition, females tend to tell the truth when it is not socially acceptable to do so or be truthful with their emotions, when it may not be the best time or place to show those emotions.
Advice: Social stories for “white lies” and the appropriateness of “emotional truth” are useful intervention tools.

About Tania Marshall

Tania holds a Masters of Science in Applied Psychology and a Bachelor of Arts in Psychology. She regularly provides diagnostic assessments, support and intervention.

Tania is currently working on her fourth book. She is co-authoring a book for professionals tentatively entitled “Assessment of Autism Spectrum and Asperger’s in Females: Comprehensive diagnostics and treatment planning for girls and women with autism spectrum conditions across the lifespan”.

To enquire or book assessments, problem solving sessions and/or support, please e-mail Tania at tania@aspiengirl.com

Tania is also completing the first three in a series of books on female Autism. Her book series is available for purchase at http://www.aspiengirl.com

To enquire about interviews, articles, workshops, or translations/translating of her books, please email Tania at tania@aspiengirl.com

book series2Tania Marshall©, 2013-2014. All rights reserved. Aspiengirl and Planet Aspien are trademarked. Thank you.